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Civil Law
 
         Civil law systems, also called continental legal systems, are found on all continents and cover about 60% of the world. They are based on concepts, categories, and rules derived from Roman law, with some influence of canon law, sometimes largely amplified or modified by local custom or culture. The civil law tradition, though secularized over the centuries and placing more focus on individual freedom, fosters co-operation between human beings.
 
In their technical, narrow sense, the words civil law describe the law that pertains to persons, things, and relationships that develop among them, excluding not only criminal law but also commercial law, labor law, etc. Codification took place in most civil law countries, with the French Code civil and the German BGB being the most influential civil codes.
 
Property Law
 
        There are two types of property which are: Real property and Personal Property. Most of the legal concepts and rules associated with both types of property are derived from English Common Law. Modern law has incorporated many of these essential concepts and rules into statutes, which define the types and rights of ownership in both real and personal property.
The difference between real property and personal property is usually easily recognizable. The character of the property, however, can be altered. Property that is initially personal in nature becomes part of realty by being annexed to it, such as when rails are made into a fence on land.
 
Corporate Law
 
         The Indian Corporate Law Service, abbreviated as the (ICLS) is the regulatory service for corporate or business sector in India. It is one of the Central Civil Services (Group A) and it functions under the Ministry of the Corporate Affairs, Government of India. The service is consigned with the responsibility of the implementation of (Companies Act, 1956, Companies Act, 2013, and also The Limited liability Partnership Act passed in 2008). The overall ordinance for the service is to accredit and regulate the corporate sector for India and to protect the rights of the investors, especially small investors.
 
Divorce law
 
         In Hindu religion, Marriage is sacrament and not considered a contract; hence the divorce in Hindu religion was not recognized before the enactment of the (Hindu Marriage Act in 1955). With the codification of this law, men and women both are equally eligible to aspire for divorce. Hindus, Buddhists, Sikhs, and Jains are also governed by the (Hindu Marriage Act 1955), Christians are been relying on (The Divorce Act 1869), Parsis rely on (Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act 1936), Muslims by the (Dissolution of Muslim Marriages Act 1939) and the Inter-religious marriages which are governed by (The Special Marriage Act 1954).
 
Cheque bouncing
 
           The dishonour of cheque is considered a criminal offence and is judicially punishable with imprisonment of up to 2 years or with cash penalty or with both Cheques are used in almost all the day-day transactions such as re-payment of loan, payment of salary, bills, fees, etc. A great majority of cheques are processed and cleared by banks on daily basis. Cheques are issued for the reason of secured proof of payment. Nevertheless, cheques remains a reliable method of payment for many people. On the other hand, it is commonly advisable to issue crossed “Account Payee Only” cheques in order to avoid its misuse.
 
Probate law
 

        A probate is a copy of a will validated by a court of competent jurisdiction. It proves that it is the last and final will of the deceased person penned on a particular date. A probate is granted with the court seal and has a copy of the will attached to the same. An executor or an administrator appointed under the will may not be able to administer its provisions without a probate. It may also be necessary when the deceased leaves behind his/her securities with various nominees and there will be a dispute on their division. The nominee can only hold the assets in trust till these are divided as indicated on the will after a probate has been obtained. In the absence of a will or nomination, succession laws come into play.

 

 
Trade mark and copyright
 
            The Copyright Act, 1957 (as amended by the Copyright Amendment Act 2012) administers the subject of copyright law in India. The history of copyright law in India can be traced back to its colonial period under the British Empire. The Copyright Act 1957 was the first post-independence copyright legislation came to light in India and the law has been passed 6 times since 1957. The most recent amendment was in 2012, within the Copyright (Amendment) Act 2012.
Trademark. According to the Trade Marks Act, 1999, "trade mark means a mark capable of being represented in graphics and which is capable of separating the goods or services of a person from those of others and may also include shape of goods, their packaging and combination of colours."